Tuesday, 15 March 2016

Burradon and Camperdown 1858

Burradon Colliery 1850s
By 1858 a colliery had been in existence at Burradon for thirty eight years. A small community, of about 450-500 mineworkers, lived in purpose-built cottages, about 90, in Camperdown. But the period from the date of the last detailed cartographic survey in 1828 sees only a small growth in population and housing, despite a new pit shaft being sunk in 1837 and new owners in 1848. The population in 1831 was around 500, only rising to 563, in 123 dwellings by 1851. The housing shown on the 1st edition OS map of 1858 was mostly the housing that was there in 1828.

By 1841 two public houses, two general dealers and a chapel had been established. By 1851 another pub, a blacksmith and another two further general dealers came into being. A further pub was established at some time before 1855. The settlement had not yet spread out from the main highway; the land surrounding it still being agricultural. Burradon Colliery occupied a small tract of land and the owners erected a row of nine dwellings within this. Pit Row, as it was known and probably dating from the 1820s, was mostly occupied by colliery workers who were occupied in a maintenance capacity of some sort, such as the coal-heap keeper. It is interesting to note that the colliery village was erected in a different township to the colliery itself. The reasons why land was not purchased within Burradon Township for mine worker's housing are unclear.

Ordnance Survey 6inch to mile c1858


1858 Ordnance Survey Perambulation

Burradon Farm

The Farm - Two farmsteads are shown on the map. One is attached to the Tower House and has a courtyard. Both have round features at the rear which are almost certainly "gin-gans", which was an area for walking horses around attached to a mechanism which powered the threshing machines. The land of Burradon had since medieval time been split into two farms. This was still the case in 1858 although only one farmer, John Moor, was the tenant farmer in the 1840s, working both farms himself.
Quarry - A large quarry has been opened up to the north-east of the farm buildings. Previous quarries are marked as "old" on the 25" edition map. Adam Tate was the quarry owner. The stone had been quarried since medieval times to provide the building material for the buildings around the farm and presumably in the 19th century for the buildings of the village. In the early part of the 19th century Lord Ridley, the landowner of Blyth, owned the quarry.
Burradon Terraces - First recording; sometimes known locally as The Far Rows.
Burradon Colliery
Wagonway - 1820; Running north to south. Privately owned by the colliery to take coals to the staiths on the Tyne at Willington.
Managers House - First recording. The building still exists.
Pit Row - x1851, possibly 1841; 9 or 10 dwellings.
Brick Field - These are often found beside colliery sites to extract the heavy clay that pits are often sunk into. Brick was becoming commonly used as the building material in towns and cities such as Newcastle. Very little is known, however, of the clay extraction and brick manufacturing industry of Burradon. The Keys to the Past website describes a brickfield in their glossary: "A site where clays are extracted, crushed (and/or stirred), shaped (by hand or mould), dried and then fired to make bricks. These have their own kilns that may have run continuously for large amounts. Brickworks were often situated near collieries to use fireclays." John Craven is listed on the 1851 census as a brickmaker. He lived at Camperdown.


Hazlerigge NE-SW 


Lane Row - x1828; back-to-back housing, opposite Collier Boy, of a one-room-and-a-garret type; 48 dwellings. The map also shows outbuildings next to the housing which are believed to be communal outdoor bread ovens, which were common in the early mining communities.
Wood Houses - First recording, but possibly x1841; back-to-back housing as Lane Row; 8 dwellings.
West Row - x1828; back-to-back housing as Lane Row, in fact probably identical; 32 dwellings.
Chapel Buildings - x1828?; 2 or 3 dwellings.
Weslyan Methodist Chapel - 1830.

Ordnance Survey 25 inch to mile Camperdown c1858

Camperdown NE-SW

Railway Cottage.
Grey Horse Public House.
Norah Place, site of - x1841?; 2 or 3 dwellings.
Collier Boy Public House, site of Camperdown Hotel - x1855.
Carr's Buildings, site of - x1841.
Travellers Rest Public House - x1841.
Wood's Houses - x1841; 4 dwellings in 2 separate. blocks.
Roughs House - First recording, but probably x1841; 25" Ordnance Survey shows an enclosure around the house with a formal garden layout. John Copeman, a West Indian shoemaker, was listed as living here in 1861.
Station Road, although not yet known by this name, N-S
Purvis Buildings - x1828?; shop and house.
Halfway House Pub - x1851.
Palmer's Buildings - First recording, although possibly x1851; house and shop?
Atkin Street, site of - x1841; grocer shop and house


Noteable Dates

1830 - A Weslyan Methodist chapel was erected in Hazlerigge (the previous name for Camperdown) near the site of the Halfway House pub.

1831 - Population (Burradon only) 67.

1837 - A new pit shaft is sunk close to the 1820 shaft after problems winning the coal from this original pit. It is known as the Engine Pit.

1840 Aug 06 - A baptism recorded in the register of Longbenton, St. Bartholomew gives the first recorded reference to the name Camperdown as a settlement. "William to John and Mary Cockburne of Camperdown, pitman."

1840 March - Christopher Wanless lists his occupation as a publican on his child's birth certificate. He lived in the Grey Horse public house, but on the 1841 census and later baptism records he is recorded as a coal miner. This would indicate that the pubs in Camperdown were not generating a sufficient living income for their publicans at this time and they required two incomes. Most likely, Christopher's wife ran the pub when he was unable to. As will become apparent on later census returns and trade directories it was often a female who ran these establishments.

1841 Census (no addresses given)

Burradon

Population 97; Dwellings 18; Heads of Household 28.

Farmer, John Moor, age 80, Burradon Farm, employer of 5 servants
Agricultural Labourers 12
Stone Quarrymen 8
Dressmaker 1 (a cottage industry employing wives and young women)
Milliner 1
Blacksmith 1

Weetslade Township

Population 345.

Mostly Coal Miners, but...
Stone Masons 2
Blacksmith 3
School Master, Anderson Stoker, Weetslade Terrace?
Quarryman 1
Joiner 2
Engineman 1
Wagon Rider 4

Killingworth Township

Population 112; Dwellings 14.

Grey Horse Public House mentioned by name, but not the publican
Flour Dealer, Thomas Purvis in what would later be known as Purvis Buildings (behind Halfway House)
Publican of Travellers Rest, Alice Patterson
Coal Miner 7
Quarrymen 2
Railway Layer 4, indicating railway laying nearby?
Joiner 1
House Carpenter
Grocer's Shop, Swinton, on site of Station Road.
Farmer, William Brown, Hillhead, age 40


1842 Oct 22 - The Reverend Ralph Brandling is listed on a tithe map for Weetslade as being the main landowner for the Weetslade area.

1848 - The Carr family took over ownership of the Colliery from the founding owners the Grand Allies. By 1858 the Low Main seam had been won. The Carr brothers, John and Charles, were originally from Ford in Northumberland. Their father and had been the manager of the Ford Castle estates, which included a colliery. The family had skilfully built up a large fortune from their original humble beginnings. They owned the nearby Seghill, Cowpen and Hartley collieries, as well as having interests in a Newcastle bank and later the Blyth and Tyne railway. John Carr the elder of the brothers lived at Bath Terrace in Blyth. Charles Carr acted as the Chief Viewer to these collieries.

1851 Mar 31 Sunday - The ecclesiastical census give the following information for the Weslyan Methodist Chapel at Hazlerigge on Sunday School attendance: 56 in the morning; 30 in the afternoon; 20 in the evening. The chapel is enumerated as being a "separate and entire building used exclusively as a place of worship, except for a Sunday school". It had 80 free sittings and 50 other sittings. Edward Davidson is the steward of the chapel, but lists his occupation as a schoolmaster on the 1851 census. A schoolmaster, Anderson Stoker, is also listed on the 1841 census. Could Edward Davidson have been exaggerating his status when he listed his main occupation as schoolmaster, his main employment being in some other field? Maybe there was another weekday school facility within the community, or maybe he was paid well enough from the chapel to work what would have been mostly on a Sunday.

1851 Census

Burradon Farm

Population 65; Households 9.

Farmer, John Younger, age 60, born Boldon, farmer of 254 acres, 3 labourers living in the house
Farmer, William Younger, age 30 unmarried, born Gosforth, farmer of 260 acres, 2 farm servants living in. [the two farmsteads were clearly being once again occupied as in the 18th century]
Quarrymen 4
Husbandman 1
Farm Labourers 6
Miner 1
Cartman 1

Burradon Pit

Pit Row
Population 39?; Dwellings 9 or 10.

Overman 1
Enginewright 2
Loco Fireman 1
Enginemen 2
Engine Fireman 1

[This would have been Pit Row (picturedabove) which was close to the colliery. It could be inferred that the people with occupations mentioned above needed to be close to the colliery for maintenance etc.]

Camperdown (Killingworth Township

Population 72; Dwellings 14.


Farmer, John Brown, Hill Head; his brother William, a vet, also resided here
Grey Horse Publican, Christopher Wanless
Grocer, Mr Stoves, now a bookies shop on Front Street
Travellers Rest Publican, Elizabeth Blakey
Hill Head Engineman, John Nichol, 5 in family


Morrison Butcher in 1920s. Front St Camperdown

Hazlerigge (Weetslade Township)

Population 459; Houses 105, uninhabited 5.

Schoolmaster, Edward Davidson
Halfway House Innkeeper, Richard Carr
Grocer, Robert Palmer, site of Station Road
Grocer, Thomas Purvis, x1841, behind Halfway House
Brickmaker, John Craven
Grocer, William Swinton, x1841, site of Station Road
Blacksmith, Abraham Boston and Son


1854 - Whellan's trade directory names Adam Tate as the sole owner of Burradon Quarry. Previously, in 1828, it was owned by the company of Tate and Brown.

1854 - The land of Burradon was in chancery. It was sold by order of the Court of Chancery, in June 1857, for £29,800. The land was jointly purchased by Mr. Joseph Straker of Benwell and his son, Mr. John Straker of Tynemouth and consisted of: Burradon Farm, the Colliery, Hill Head Farm and a large portion of Burradon/Hazlerigge lands. The Strakers were to build up a considerable list of business interests including shipowning and mining. They purchased a large country estate at High Warden, near Hexham.

1855 - Whellan Trade Directory, Camperdown (Hazlerigg)

Killingworth Part

Bell, Mary Ann; Grocer [Probably where Bookies is now on Front Street and occupied by Mr Stoves in 1851] (pictured right)
Blakey, Elizabeth; Beer Retailer [Travellers Rest x1851]
Carr, George; Vict. Collier Lad
Carr, Richard; Vict. Halfway House [x1851]
Marshall, George; Joiner and Cartwright
Purvis, Thomas; Grocer [x1841]
Wanless, Christopher; Vict. Grey Horse [x1851]
Weetslade Part
Davidson, Edward; Schoolmaster [x1851]
Palmer, George; Grocer [Robert Palmer in 1851]


1858 Kelly's Trade Directory

Burradon Commercial

Carr, John and Co; Colliery Owners
Tate, Adam; Quarry Owner [x1854]
Younger, John and William; Farmers [x1851]
Camperdown or Hazlerigg
Blakey, Elizabeth; Grey Horse [in 1855 victualler of Travellers Rest]
Carr, Elizabeth; Halfway House [in 1855 Richard Carr]
Carr, George; Beer Retailer [Travellers Rest; in 1855 had been licensee of the Collier Lad]
Laverick, Eleanor; Shopkeeper [Probably site of Dixons Buildings just south of the Grey Horse]
Marshall, George; Joiner and Wheelwright [x1855]
Palmer, Robert; Shopkeeper [x1855]
Rutherford, John; Collier Lad
Short, Edward; Shopkeeper [shop between Travellers Rest and Collier Lad]



1858 - Joshua Bower of Leeds purchases the colliery at Burradon, but retains the services of Charles Carr as manager. Messrs Carr and Co sold all four their collieries by public auction in this year due to what is described in the Mining and Smelting Magazine Vol 1:"the disastrous effects the commercial panic of 1857 had upon their property". The purchase price was £50,000.

Related Articles...