Monday, 21 March 2016

Burradon and Camperdown 1894

Quoits Team at Rear of West Row c.1890

The mining community of Burradon and Camperdown by the time of the 2nd edition Ordnance Survey of c1894 had a population of 1776 persons (1891 census). There had only been a slight rise in population in the previous three decades, since the ist edition Ordnance Survey,  but in the 1860s the population had doubled very quickly, due to a massive increase in mining activity.

By 1894 the colliery was over 70 years old, but it was in the years after the 1850s that the workforce grew from around 300 to 785 men in 1896.

A larger community would require a larger number of amenities. The development of these amenities spread gradually northwards along Burradon Road, including a school, mechanic's institute, football ground, a new chapel, several traders and service providers. These amenities were often achieved through the co-operative efforts of the mineworkers themselves

The 1881 census reveals the birthplace of most residents as being the surrounding colliery villages of a greater antiquity than Burradon, with a small number of the more elderly residents having been born in more rural areas of Northumberland and Durham. Only young children are listed as having been born within the community. This indicates that the workforce was still fairly mobile, seeking employment in whichever pit offered them the most favourable conditions. Later on the surnames of many families persist, even to the modern day, as sons followed fathers into Burradon pit.

By 1871 Burradon colliery was sizeable and would not have the rural feel to it as it had enjoyed in previous times. The housing created for the mineworkers was basic terraced cottages. These came in for much criticism, as well as the lack of sanitary amenities, by contemporaries. In 1861 an average of 5.52 persons were living in each house or cottage. In Burradon, for reasons that are unclear, the figure was 6.33 persons per dwelling compared to Camperdown at 4.91 p.p.d. Mineworkers families were often large. Boys from the age of ten years old were employed by the colliery, bringing a much needed wage into the household, hence the incentive to have a large family. My own great-grandparents family consisted of fourteen persons living in one of these tiny cottages. There was usually a period where a rise in population, probably because of a need for extra colliery workers, was not immediately followed by a rise in the levels of housing. This meant families having to share or take in lodgers.

Overall, some overcrowding, poor sanitation and chimney smoke probably meant that Burradon was not the most pleasant of places to live in this period, as was common with other centres of industrial growth in Britain.

Ordnance Survey 1894 Perambulation
2nd Edition OS map six inch to mile c.1894


Colliery Buildings - expanded from previous OS edition
Football Ground - first recording
Pit Row - 1871 10 dwellings; 1881 9 dwellings
Double Row - 1872; 3 rows of 7 dwellings each
Strawberry Terrace - first recording; 7 dwellings
North Row - 1872; 27 dwellings
Middle Row - 1872; 27 dwellings
Mission Chapel, Church of the Good Shepherd - 1894
Infant School - first recording
Office Row - x1860; 1861 30 dwellings; 1871 40 dwellings
Pit Manager's House- x1858; at end of Office Row


Burradon Road S-N

Post Office Row - x1871; 11 dwellings; 1871 part of Chapel Row; 1881 School Row; 1891 PO Row
Primitive Methodist Chapel - c.1860s; 1883 Co-op Store
School - 1861
Burradon Road Freeholds - buildings to the north of the school in small blocks; 1871 8 units known as Dodd's Row; 1881 as part of School Row which had 25 units
Primitive Methodist Chapel - first recording c.1890
Mechanic's Institute - first recording c.1890
Taylor's Buildings - first recording; 4 dwellings

Camperdown NE-SW

Fryer's Terrace - 1861; 4 blocks of 17 houses and 1 shop
Railway Cottage - x1830?
Grey Horse Pub - x1828?
Dixon's Buildings - 1861
Norah Place, site of - x1841?; 2 or 3 dwellings.
Collier Boy Public House, site of Camperdown Hotel - x1855.
Carr's Buildings, site of - x1841.
Travellers Rest Public House - x1841.
Wood's Houses - x1841; 4 dwellings in 2 separate. blocks.
Roughs House - First recording, but probably x1841; 25" Ordnance Survey shows an enclosure around the house with a formal garden layout.



Station Road, although not yet known by this name, N-S

Purvis Buildings - x1828?; shop and house.
Halfway House Pub - x1851.
Palmer's Buildings - First recording, although possibly x1851; house and shop?
Atkin Street, site of - x1841; grocer shop and house

Hazlerigge NE-SW

Lane Row - x1828; back-to-back housing of a one-room-and-a-garret type; 48 dwellings.
Wood Houses - First recording, but possibly x1841; back-to-back housing as Lane Row; 8 dwellings.
West Row - x1828; back-to-back housing as Lane Row, in fact probably identical; 32 dwellings.
Chapel Buildings - x1828?; 2 or 3 dwellings.
Weslyan Methodist Chapel - 1830.


Noteable Dates


1859 - The housing of Office Row begun to be constructed.

1860 - The old farmsteads, one of which was attached to the tower house, were demolished and a new farmhouse built. New housing was also provided for the farm workers (hinds) at a slightly later date.

Post Office Row and Fryer's Terrace


1860 - A mining disaster occurred at Burradon Colliery which claimed the lives of seventy-six men and boys.

1861 - Land was purchased from Charles Straker by John Fryer, the viewer of the colliery, to build rows of housing and a shop (Fryers Terrace). The shop was at first ran by family members, but later became a Post Office and then a Co-operative store.

1860s - A small Primitive Methodist chapel was built adjoining the school on its southern side. This was part of the Seaton Delaval Primitive Methodist circuit. The Methodists divided areas into circuits, appointing a minister to each one, who on each Sunday would visit a different chapel within the circuit. Local men, who felt they had a certain religious calling, would become lay preachers for their respective chapel. On the 1861 census Joseph Maddison described himself as a lay preacher and in 1881 Alexander Bolton the shopkeeper also had this title.

1861 - a school was built on Burradon Road and was capable of accommodating between 450 and 500 pupils. The school was completely the property of the miners and was larger than either the Seghill or West Moor schools, a fact that the miners were justifiably proud of. Each married man had to pay 6d. per fortnight for running expenses. Young men and boys could pay 3d. per fortnight if they wished to take advantage of the night school. The school was mixed and completely unsectarian in its teaching. A news room and library was also attached to the school and had thirty members. Money from the mining disaster relief fund had been used to fund the initial construction. It is interesting to note that the miners realised the value of an education in an age where there was no state provision for education.

1861 - Census

Hazlerigg (Weetslade Township)
Population 462; Dwellings 90.

Occupations

Shoemaker, John Copeman, West Indian, Roughs Cottage
Grocer, Robert Palmer, x1851, site of Station Road
Chemist, William Parton
Grocer, Thomas Purvis, x1841, beside Halfway House
Innkeeper of Halfway House, Elizabeth Carr
Mineworkers mostly in the following housing

Buildings NE-SW

Lane Row, 48; Wood Houses, 8; West Row, 32; Smith's Cottages, 2; Halfway House; Hazlerigg, 3; Roughs Cottage.
See maps at foot of page for locations

Camperdown (Killingworth Township)

Population 74; Dwellings 19.

Occupations

Head of Beer House [Travellers Rest] Joiner, George Carr, x1858
Grocer, Edward Short, x1858, between Travellers Rest and Collier Lad
Innkeeper Collier Lad, John Brown
Butcher and farmer of 28 acres, Samuel Pollock, Bookies shop on Front Street?
Innkeeper Grey Horse, Elizabeth Blakey, x1858
The rest comprise of mineworkers, labourers and 1 quarry worker

Buildings W-E

Camperdown, 4; Beer House; Camperdown 2; Grocers shop; Collier Lad; Camperdown, 2; Dixon Building, 1; Grey Horse; House [Railway Cottage].

Burradon (Township)
Population 507; Approx. 61 person in farm area, Approx. 210 colliery, Approx. 190 Burradon Terraces; Dwellings 80.

Occupations

Farmer of 552 acres, William Younger, employing 11 men and 2 maidens
Butcher, Robert Scott, Farm
The rest comprise mostly agricultural labourers and some miners
Colliery Blacksmith, John Yellowley, Burradon Terraces
Horse Shoer, James Hume, Burradon Terraces
Blacksmith, Dickinson Sankey, Burradon Terraces
Diverse population of miners and farm workers in Burradon Terraces, which poses the question of who commissioned this housing
Cartman and wagonway man, Peter Mather, Pit Row
Blacksmith, Thomas Gerhans, Pit Row
Joiner, John Hardy, Pit Row
Brickmaker, Robson Lodge [Brick Field shown on 1858 map], Pit Row
Coal Heap Keeper, Adam Tindle, Pit Row
Mostly persons employed by the colliery in Pit Row, but not miners
Resident Viewer, John Fryer, Office Row [manager's house]
Overman, William Kirkley, Office Row

Buildings N-S

Farmstead; Burradon Terraces; Pit Row; Office Row

Total Population 1043; Total dwellings 189

1866 Jul - John Harrison had caught Thomas Charlton and Thomas Horsfield - boys employed at Burradon Colliery - breaking sheaves (a guide for the ropes pulling wagons by means of a fixed engine on a railway) on the Brunton-Shields railway line near Camperdown. The railway owner's agent did not seek compensation for this act of 25s. damage, but wanted an example set, because they have been caused a considerable nuisance and expense by this vandalism, that had been going on for a long time. Charlton - said to be the ringleader - was sent to prison for three days. His mother made an arrogant and impertinent plea to the bench, but they were told she was a violent woman who had threatened John Harrison's wife. The boy was taken away crying.

1867 Nov 12 - This short piece appeared in the "Shields Daily News": "Mr John Younger the enterprising tenant of Burradon Farm has purchased two self propelled steam driven cultivating machines. These had arrived the previous Saturday from John Fowler and Company, Steam Plough Works, Leeds. The steam was applied and the machines propelled themselves through the town to Burradon. They were quickly put to work, most satisfactorily, in a field near Burradon Pit."

1871 - Nathanial Lambert purchased Burradon Colliery by auction. He, along with his partners, lived and had financial interests in the Killingworth district. They also owned the Coxlodge colliery and from this time forward their company was known as the Burradon and Coxlodge Coal Company. They traded up until the time of nationalisation in the mid-20th century.

1871 - Census

Camperdown and Hazlerigg
Population 536; Dwellings 155

Occupations

Draper, Jane Cobbie, H. Square
Blacksmith, William Brighton, H. Square
Grocer, Elenora Laverick, x1858, Possibly Dixon's Buildings, H. Square
Medical Botanist, William Porter, Shorts Cottages
Cooper, James Holden, Shorts Cottages
Innkeeper Halfway House, Thomas Finlay
Innkeeper Travellers Rest, Elizabeth Carr [George Carr in 1858]
Shopkeeper, John Forster [previously Edward Short, Carrs Buildings]
Publican (and Coalminer) Collier Lad, Edward Urwin
Innkeeper Grey Horse, George Means
Grocer, John Fryer, Fryer's Terrace
Shoemaker, John Palmer, Fryer's Terrace
Postman, Alexander Scott, Fryer's Terrace
Blacksmith, William Smith, Fryer's Terrace

Burradon
Population 561; Dwellings 118

Occupations

Shopkeeper, Alexander Bolton, Dodds Row
Newsagent, Willam Durey, Dodds Row
Blacksmith, William Mather, Office Row
Deputy Overman, Robert Hays, Office Row
Viewer, John Maughan, Viewer's House
Blacksmith, Dickinson Sankey, Pit Row [1861 living in Burradon Terraces]
Blacksmith, William Young, Burradon Terraces
Overman, Robert Hay, Burradon Terraces
Blacksmith, John Bell, Burradon Terraces
Farmer of 500 Acres, John Younger [William Younger in 1861] employing nine labourers and three boys
The rest of the working population was mostly colliery workers and agricultural labourers

Total Population 1097; Total Dwellings 273

1872 - The first Co-operative store was opened in Camperdown.

1872 - Work began on the new colliery housing of North, Middle and Double Rows. The new colliery owner was responding to criticism of the existing housing, which was described by one newspaper reporter as a disgrace. Families were actually beginning to leave Burradon to find work elsewhere because of this.

1872 - The average daily attendance of the school was 164 pupils.

1879 - Post Office Directory

Burradon
Lambert Nathanial and Co. Colliery Owners; Burradon Colliery
Stobbs, Edward; Farmer [A curious entry since the Younger family had farmed this land single-handedly since the 1840s. The size of the farm or dwelling is unknown.]
Tate, Adam; Quarry owner [x1854]
Younger, John and William; Farmers [x1851]

Hazlerigg
Lacey, John; Halfway House
Means, George; Collier Lad
Means, Margaret (Mrs); Grey Horse [1871 George Means]
Morrison, Joseph Burn; Butcher [Front St Bookies]
Short, Edward; Shopkeeper [x1858 Carr's Buildings]
Taylor, Stephen; Beer Retailer [Travellers Rest]
Waldie, William, Grocer [Fryer's Terrace]

Hazlerigge
Younger, John; Farmer Hill Head [1851 John Brown; no info on 1861-71]

1881 - Census

Burradon
Population 1110; Dwellings 198

Occupations

Blacksmith [colliery], Dickinson Sankey, Double Row [1871 at Pit Row]
Teacher, Barbara Urwin, Double Row
Blacksmith, Silvanus Brooks, Double Row
Cartman, William Hope, Double Row
Coalheap Keeper, Angus Tweddle, Pit Row [previously Pit Row had housed colliery workers, but not miners, this was no longer the case, apart from Angus]
Colliery Manager, William Green, Manager's House
Fireman, Thomas Beadling, Office Row
Engine Driver, Isaac Ellerington, Office Row
Police Constable, James Hay, site of Burradon Road
Draper, Susannah Wilson, site of Burradon Road [just north of the school
Grocer, Alexander Bolton, x1871, site of Burradon Road [just north of the school]
Newsagent, John Durey, x1871, site of Burradon Road [just north of the school]
Stone Mason, Robert Hine, Burradon Terraces
Colliery Horseshoer, Thomas Wallace, Burradon Terraces
Blacksmith, William Southern, Burradon Terraces
Blacksmith, Christopher Peary, Burradon Terraces
Farmer, John Younger, x1871
Hazlerigg and Camperdown

Population 521; Dwellings 137.

Occupations

Butcher, Robert Alderson, Lane Row
Blacksmith, John Stafford, Woods Row
Blacksmith, William Cowans, Lane Row
Blacksmith, John Anderson, Weetslade Terrace
Brass Finisher, John Hartley, Weetslade Terrace
School Mistress, Elizabeth Oaks, Weetslade Terrace
School Master, William Davey, Weetslade Terrace [it is possible that a house was purchased in Weetslade Terrace, adjacent to the school, for the schoolmaster, by the school guardians]
Butcher, Stephen Dixon [shop in Purvis Buildings]
Innkeeper Halfway House, John Lacey, x1879
Innkeeper Travellers Rest, Stephen Taylor, 1879
Innkeeper Collier Lad, Luke Rossiter
Grocer, Edward Short, x1858 [1881 his shop is in Dixons Buildings beside Grey Horse. Previously in Carr's Buildings beside Travellers Rest]
Innkeeper Grey Horse, Margaret Means, x1879 [George Means 1871]

Total Population 1631; Total Dwellings 335

1887 - Bulmer Trade Directory (Burradon Entries)

"Both freestone and coal are plentiful and extensively wrought."
Anderson, John Thomas; Blacksmith
Black, Geo; Deputy Burradon Colliery
Bolton, Alexander; Grocer and Draper [x1871]
Burradon Colliery, the owners of
Carr, Henry; Cartman
Clough, Matthew; Deputy Colliery
Cramlington Co-op Society Ltd
Dunn, Thomas; Deputy
Gallon, Thomas; Deputy
Green, William; Under Manager (colliery)
Hays, Robert; Deputy
Hetherington, David; Colliery Manager; lives Gosforth
Howey, Joseph; Police Constable [x1881]
Humble, Thos; Deputy Burradon Colliery
Johnson, Joseph; Deputy
McDougal, Thomas; Schoolmaster Burradon School
Messer, Geo; Deputy Burradon Colliery
Patterson, Ralph S; Com Traveller
Stubbs, Rd; Deputy
Urwin, Edward; Deputy
Wilson, James; Draper [1881 Susannah Wilson on Burradon Road just north of school]
Younger, John, Farmer [x1871]


Burradon Road c1920s


1888 - The Primitive Methodist chapel, adjoining the school, was sold to the Co-operative Society.

1890 - A Primitive Methodist chapel was constructed, larger than the previous, on Burradon Road. (pictured right)


1891 - Census

Camperdown and Hazlerigg
Population 620; Dwellings 165.

Occupations

Innkeeper Halfway House, Stephen Taylor [1881 in Travellers Rest]
Grocer, Stephen Dixon, Purvis Buildings
Innkeeper Travellers Rest, Jonathon Dorricot
Innkeeper Collier Lad and Butcher [Bookies shop], Joseph Morrison
Stone Mason, Michael Alexander, Wood's Buildings
Boarding House Keeper, Lizzie Pringle
Innkeeper Grey Horse, John Thew
Stone Mason, Robson Wilson, Chapel Buildings
Railway Dockman, Jacob Frazer, Lane Row
Butcher, Patrick Thompson [Weetslade Terrace shop, the first mention of a butcher in this location]
Teacher, Thomas McDougal, Weetslade Terrace [1881 William Davey held this position and residence]
Timber Merchant, John Hardy, x1890, Weetslade Terrace
Post Mistress, Elizabeth Hardy (wife of above), Weetslade Terrace [1894 map shows a post office at the N end of Weetslade Terrace]
Music Teacher, James Hardy, Weetslade Terrace
Blacksmith, Benjamin Wandless, Fryer's Terrace
Fireman, Alfred Burn, Fryer's Terrace
Policeman, Joseph Howe, Fryer's Terrace

Burradon
Population 1156; Dwellings 194

Occupations

Hairdresser, Henry Cuthbertson, North Row [believed to have had a small wooden cabin at the site of the W.M. club]
Blacksmith, William Cowans, Pit Row
Safety Lamp Maker, John Hartley, Middle Row
Joiner, Ralph Appelby, Office Row
Joiner, John Steward, Office Row
Blacksmith, William Wandless, Post Office Row
Fireman, Alexander Davidson, site of Burradon Road
Grocer, Alexander Bolton, x1871 [shop just north of the school]
Oil Merchant, Henry Anderson, site of Burradon Road
Blacksmith, John Anderson, site of Burradon Road [yard where hairdresser's premises are now]
Wagonwright, William Hodgson, Burradon Terraces
Blacksmith, Thomas Grieves


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